At the end of 2019 to October 2020 there were 54,301,156 cases of Covid-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus worldwide with 1,316,994 deaths (WHO, 2020). SARS-CoV-2 transmission is known to occur through direct contact, indirect contact, or close contact with an infected person through secretions such as saliva and respiratory secretions or airway droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings. (WHO, 2020). There is currently no vaccine or drug that can prevent and stop the virus. Therefore, what you can do to avoid being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 is to wear a mask, avoid crowds, and maintain your immune system. The use of masks includes a comprehensive set of preventive and control measures that can limit the spread of certain respiratory viral diseases, including COVID-19. Masks can be used either to protect healthy people (used to protect themselves when in contact with infected people) or to control sources (used by infected people to prevent further transmission) (WHO, 2020) Masks have various types, ranging from the most secure. and those recommended, such as medical masks and N95 masks, to ordinary cloth masks that have a greater risk of transmitting the virus than medical masks. The increasing number of Covid 19 in the world has made the availability of medical masks and the waste generated from masks, especially disposable masks, increased dramatically. cloth masks are an alternative to this problem. A study evaluating the use of cloth masks found that health workers who use cotton cloth masks are more at risk of developing influenza-like illnesses than health workers who use medical masks (WHO, 2020), therefore the likelihood of contracting the virus in individuals wearing cloth masks is higher from medical masks, and does not rule out the entry of the virus in individuals wearing medical masks as well. The initiative to make viral filters that will be used on masks aims to increase the effectiveness of using masks, both medical masks and cloth masks, especially in warding off viruses, and adding them to substances that have aromatherapy value, which in turn make masks more comfortable to wear and able to increase immunity in use. This filter is made by absorbing substances from materials around us that are not used which contain compounds that are effective in inhibiting and killing viruses (lemongrass extract), as well as compounds that have aromatherapy value and high antioxidant content in them (orange peel extract) with a concentration of solution. which has a ratio of extract, alcohol, and distilled water, namely 1: 1: 3 into a material that easily absorbs liquid (tissue). Compounds in several plants show a strong tendency to overcome the Covid-19 virus, especially in the existing terpenoid compounds, one of which is lemongrass. (BM Nadjib, 2020) The antiviral content of lemongrass which contains terpenoid compounds reveals that lemongrass has a strong antiviral. In particular, geraniol and limonene compounds show strong antiviral activity in lemongrass and this is evidenced by the large affinity that binds Limonene (-5.1) and geraniol (-5.0) (kcal / mol) when tested in silico compounds using molecular docking. methods. (S. A. Kulkarni et al, 2020) Testing compounds in lemongrass using the in vitro method also showed that lemongrass has strong antiviral propertiesThe results showed that lemongrass actually inhibited the growth of HSV-1 at a concentration of 0.1%, about 80% at a concentration of 0.05%, and about 50% at a concentration of 0.05%. And of all the essential oils tested. The conclusion is that lemongrass oil is the most effective essential oil against HSV-1 infection (M. Minami. M et al., 2003), this proves that lemongrass has strong antiviral properties. As for the use of sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis) because sweet oranges are widely consumed directly and made into juice. The production of oranges, which until 2010 (USDA, 2010) reached 82 million tons, produced 44% of orange peels as a by product. Most of the orange peel is produced every year which is often found as organic waste (S. Li et al, 2006). The extracted orange peel will later be put into this filter mask which is useful for increasing the body's metabolism. Further studies are recommended to demonstrate the effectiveness of this antiviral filter.
Antiviral Filter Supports The Mask From Lemongrass Extract and Waste Orange Peel Extract
The use of masks for everyone in the era of the Covid 19 pandemic is an obligation that everyone must obey when they are outside the home. Viruses that spread rapidly through the respiratory tract can be prevented by using masks. However, there is still a possibility that the virus can infect even after wearing a mask, especially if the mask used does not meet the minimum requirements for a mask. Therefore, this study is proposed to make a mask support that can provide more protection from viral infections. Lemon grass and citrus extract compounds were obtained by the 48-hour maceration method with 96% ethanol solvent and then absorbed in the mask support (virus filter) used in the mask. It was found that the compounds in lemongrass can provide a lot of viral protection for masks. The compounds in lemongrass have strong anti-viral properties especially for some respiratory viruses. In addition, the compounds in the orange peel extract which have a fresh aroma and high antioxidants can be used as aromatherapy which can increase the endurance of the wearer. The combination of the two compounds contained in this mask support will further maximize the work of the mask in preventing the spread of the virus, especially from the respiratory tract and the mask used will be more comfortable to use.