So this research to test the content of the sponge as an antibacterial agent used as a hand sanitizer using a quantitative and experimental descriptive approach. Data collection was carried out by conducting experiments to determine the effectiveness of sea sponges (Phylum Porifer) in inhibiting bacterial growth. In this study, using several different variables such as the presence of independent variables, namely sea sponge extension and the dependent variable using the bacterial inhibition zone (mm) and the absorbance value and using several tools such as filter paper, Erlenmeyer tubes, and so on and for materials using sponges, potatoes. Alcohol and others. So the method is that the sample preparation used is weighed then washed and cleaned of dirt, then the wet sample of the sponge is mashed using a dry blender and becomes cool from a sponge. After the sponge powder refinement process, 96% alcohol is added and stirred until the powder is dissolved in alcohol then covered with a crackle and stirred once for 3 days then filtered to produce sponge extract. After the above process, it is followed by making potato dextrose so that the ingredients are in the form of potatoes and then cut into pieces then boiled until soft so that it produces boiled water for potatoes then added agar and sugar and form a PDA solution. The next step is stirring until it turns into a homogeneous solution then filtered and added with a solution of distilled water and ketoconazole as an anti-fungal agent and put into an Erlenmeyer tube and covered with aluminum foil to produce PDA results. Then there was the inoculation of bacteria using a hand wash water sample by scratching on the PDA medium and then incubated for 1 day. After that, the bacteriological effectiveness test was conducted, so that antibacterial substance was found in the sponge phylum sponge. Then we can create a product that is easy and easy to use. The initial test was carried out to review the activity of all samples against the tested bacteria isolated from hand washing water. The results of the preliminary test showed that all samples taken from the sponge extract gave a positive response to the inhibition of bacteria isolated from hand washing water. Antimicrobial compounds have 3 kinds of effects on microbial growth. The types of antimicrobials include bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and bacteriolytic. Bacteriocidal effect by killing cells but does not occur cell lysis or cell breakdown. Bacteriolytic causes cells to undergo lysis or cell breakdown so that the number of cells decreases or turbidity occurs after the addition of antimicrobials. Bacteriostatic effect by inhibiting growth but not killing.
The effectiveness of demospongiae (phylum porifera) on sanitizer sponges as a bacteriocide agent
In this era of the industrial revolution, we know that there is an increasingly rapid development of technology which has a major impact, especially in the fields of science and health. Health is one of the primary needs that must be met by humans in their lives. The development of this technology finally has an impact on the sophistication of equipment related to science. The ever-increasing development has led to the emergence of various diseases that force people to continue to carry out research to find drugs and antibiotics because in essence humans will use their minds to meet the needs of life and survive. We know that Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world which has a large sea area with a coast length of 99,093 km (Geospatial Information Agency, 2015). This makes the existence of a high diversity of marine biological resources, one of which is the coral reef ecosystem. In coral reef ecosystems live various types of marine life, including sea sponges (Mokodompit et al., 2015). one of sponges that is find in indonesian sea is demospongiae. That sponge is one of the marine life that makes up coral reefs. Sponges are one of the marine biotas that make up coral reefs. Sponges contain secondary metabolites that can ward off and inhibit pathogenic bacteria. This makes a demospongiae sponge an interesting marine animal to study because they have great potential to be developed in the field of medicine, namely as antibacterial agents (Abubakar et al., 2006; Suparno, 2005).