Diseases that often attack all age levels in society are generally caused by infection. Infection is the entry of microbes into the human body and causes many diseases including diarrhea, respiratory infections, meningitis, and even death. Many infections are caused by bacteria spreading through the air, touch, cutlery, and so forth. people usually use a product generally known antibacterials, cleaners containing only 70% ethanolthat can cause irritation - if use it frequentlyto prevent those diseases by its compounds (bacteriocides) including flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, carotenes, and saponins. One of the activities of these compounds is found in the female palm seed. The female palm seed contains secondary metabolites, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, polyphenols, phenolic hydroquinones, and saponins (Adawiyah, 2016). This compound can be used as an alternative antibacterial in the form of liquid sanitizer palm. Liquid palm has the advantage of slow evaporation, which allows the product to remain active on the surface, while other alcohol-based disinfectants tend to evaporate too quickly so the product is rapidly removed from the surface of the skin. The manufacture of liquid palm oil cleaner is divided into three stages, the maceration stage, the material extraction stage, and the sanitizer manufacturing stage. The maceration stage is carried out by mixing the powdered sample of dry palm seed with 1000 ml of 70% ethanol in a ratio of 1:10 into a dark bottle, then let stand for 48 hours to get the extract, stirring occasionally for the first 6 hours to maximize the maceration results. The results of maceration that have been left for 48 hours are filtered to store them from residue and are placed in a special container. The extract that has been obtained is heated by soaking it in a pot filled with boiling water, stirring occasionally until the ethanol evaporates and leaves the flavonoids for each ingredient. The flavonoids for each material in the form of a viscous material are dried, then taken and mashed to be dissolved with a solvent to make an extract solution. The sanitizer is made by mixing the flavonoid extract solution of the palm seed with aloe vera gel, distilled water, and essential oils. Then the antibacterial effectiveness test was carried out using 3 methods, namely paper disk, optical density, and litmus paper with a concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%. Initial testing was carried out to see the activity of all samples against bacteria isolated from hand washing water. The results of the initial test showed that all samples taken from the flavonoid extract of the palm seed gave a positive response to the inhibition of bacteria isolated from hand washing water. Then further testing of all samples was done to prove the zone of inhibition to show the effectiveness of the antibacterial taken from the flavonoid extract of the palm seed with the paperdisk method using 250 gr chloramphenicol with 100 ml distilled water as a control (+) and control (-) made from 70% ethanol in in this research. The results of the second test indicate that all samples taken provide inhibition against the tested bacteria. The first sample shows an average effectiveness of 1.2 mm. The second sample shows the number 4.4 mm as the mean of bacterial inhibitor effectiveness. The third sample has an average of 12.6 mm. Based on these data, it was found that the third sample had the highest effectiveness. The second test used optical density data through a spectrophotometer to prove the % growth inhibition against bacteria isolated from hand washing water. This method is known as the absorbance method. The results of the spectrophotometer also showed a number that was less than 1. This proved the strength of the flavonoid extract of palm seed against the inhibition of bacteria isolated from hand washing water. The third test used litmus paper measurements. The sample show an average pH range of 4-6. This shows that the flavonoid extract of palm seed was effective against bacterial growth inhibition because the optimal pH for making sanitizers ranges from 4.5 - 6.5. From the three testers above, it could be summed up that Liquid Palm Sanitizer has activity and effectiveness as a bacteriocide agent.
LIPSA : Potential of Female Palm (Veitchia merilli) Seeds in Liquid Palm Sanitizer as a Bacterioside Agents
Many infections are caused by bacteria spreading through the air, touch of hands, cutlery, and so forth. People tend to use antbacterials which consists of 70% ethanol. flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, carotenes and saponins as a prevention. One of the activities of these compounds is found in the female palm seed. The female palm seed contains secondary metabolites, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, polyphenols, phenolic hydroquinones, and saponins (Adawiyah, 2016). This compound can be used as an alternative antibacterial in the form of liquid sanitizer palm. Then the antibacterial effectiveness test was carried out using 3 methods, namely paper disk, optical density, and litmus paper with a concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%. Bacteriocide activity was measured using the zone of resistance measurement method and the OD (Optical Density) method. The results showed that the sponge extract had antibacterial activity (bacteriocide) which was indicated by the inhibition factor of giving sponge extract compounds with a zone of inhibition zone diameter of 12.6 mm and a decrease in OD value of 0.28% when compared to controls with an inhibition zone of 2 mm and the value of the proportion of resistance OD results of 0%. The third test uses litmus paper measurements. The sample shows an average pH range of 4-6 which is the optimal pH in bacterial inhibition. This shows that the palm seed flavonoid extract has bacteriocidal activity.